Cosmologists explain the formation of entire solar system as following:
The standard model for the formation of the Solar System (including the Earth) is the solar
nebula hypothesis. In this model, the Solar system formed from a large, rotating cloud of interstellar dust and gas called the Solar Nebula. It was composed of hydrogen and helium created shortly after the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago and heavier elements ejected by supernovae. About 4.5 Ga, the nebula began a contraction that may have been triggered by the shock wave of a nearby supernova. A shock wave would have also made the nebula rotate. As the cloud began to accelerate, its angular momentum, gravity and inertia flattened it into a protoplanetary disk perpendicular to its axis of rotation. Small perturbations due to collisions and the angular momentum of other large debris created the means by which kilometer-sized proto planets began to form, orbiting the nebular center. Source: Wikipedia
The Big Bang is a scientific theory about how the universe started, and then made the groups of stars (called galaxies) we see today. The universe began as very hot, small, and dense, with no stars, atoms, form, or structure. Then about 14 billion years ago space expanded very quickly, resulting in the formation of atoms which eventually led to the creation of stars and galaxies.
The universe is still expanding today, but getting colder as well. As a whole, space is growing and the temperature is falling as time passes. Cosmology is the name given to how the universe began and how it has developed. Scientists that study cosmology agree the Big Bang theory matches what they have observed so far. Scientists base the Big Bang theory on many different observations. The most important is the redshift of very far away galaxies. Redshift is the Doppler Effect occurring in light. When an object moves away from earth, it looks reddish because the movement stretches the wavelength. The reddish colour occurs because red is the lowest wavelength on the visible spectrum. The more redshift there is, the faster the object is moving away. By measuring the redshift, scientists proved that the universe is expanding and can even work out how fast the object is moving. With precise observation and measurements, scientists believe that universe was a singularity approximately 13.8 billion years ago. Source: Wikipedia
In the year of 1929 Edwin Hubble discovered that the Universe is in fact expanding at enormous speed. He quickly realized what this meant that there must have been an instant in time (now known to be about 14 billion years ago) when the entire Universe was contained in a single point in space. The Universe must have been born in this single violent event which came to be known as The "The Big Bang".
Using the 100-inch Hooker Telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, Dr. Edwin Hubble has studied many spiral nebulae. He
has discovered they are moving away from us at a rapid pace. This is strong evidence of an Expanding Universe. He has
further determined that the farther the nebula, the faster it moves away.
Hubble and colleague Milton Humason measured the speeds and distances for twenty-four of these nebulae. Because they
are moving so quickly, their light waves are stretched out. Because red light has the longest wavelength, this
phenomenon is known as "redshift". The team noticed that dimmer, more distant objects have a larger redshift than
objects closer to Earth. Source: NASA
Einstein's theory also suggested The expansion of the Universe, But Einstein didn't believe this could Be correct
In 1917 Einstein added a new term to his equations, the "cosmological constant." This constant was designed to avoid the possibility of an expanding universe.
In 1929 Dr. Edwin Hubble discovered that the Universe is in fact expanding at enormous speed
Stephen Hawking in his book ‘A Brief History of Science’ says “The discovery that the universe is expanding was one of the great Intellectual revolution of 20th century” Quran mentioned the expansion of the universe, before man Even learnt to build a telescope!
The Solar System is made up of all the planets that orbit our Sun. In addition to planets, the Solar System also consists of MOON, COMETS, ASTEROIDS, MINOR PLANETS, and DUST and GAS. Everything in the Solar System orbits or revolves around the Sun. The Sun contains around 98% of all the material in the Solar System. The larger an object is, the more gravity it has. Because the Sun is so large, its powerful gravity attracts all the other objects in the Solar System towards it. At the same time, these objects, which are moving very rapidly, try to fly away from the Sun, outward into the emptiness of outer space. The result of the planets trying to fly away, at the same time that the Sun is trying to pull them inward is that they become trapped half-way in between. Balanced between flying towards the Sun, and escaping into space, they spend eternity orbiting around their parent star. Source: Wikipedia
Space is the void that exists between celestial bodies, including the Earth.
It is not completely empty, but consists of a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly plasma
of hydrogen and helium as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust and cosmic rays. In most
galaxies, observations provide evidence that 90% of the mass is in an unknown form, called dark matter
Dark matter is a hypothetical kind of matter that cannot be seen with telescopes but would account for most of the matter in the universe. The existence and properties of dark matter are inferred from its gravitational effects on visible matter, on radiation, and on the large-scale structure of the universe.
Dark matter has not been detected directly, making it one of the greatest mysteries in modern astrophysics. Dark matter neither emits nor absorbs light or any other electromagnetic radiation at any significant level. According to the Planck mission team, and based on the standard model of cosmology, the total mass–energy of the known universe contains 4.9% ordinary matter, 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energy. Thus, dark matter is estimated to constitute 84.5% of the total matter in the universe, while dark energy plus dark matter constitute 95.1% of the total mass–energy content of the universe. • Albert Einstein was the first person to realize that space was not simply empty
• Dark energy, which fills the space between galaxies and drives them apart, is "perhaps the biggest mystery in physics," said Steve Allen of the Institute of Astronomy (IoA) in Cambridge, England.
• STEVE HAWKINGS: By its very nature, (cold) dark matter has to be hard to detect. Finding a way to do so is one of the most difficult tasks in physics today.
• Dark matter was postulated by Jan Oort in 1932, albeit based upon insufficient evidence, to account for the orbital velocities of stars in the Milky Way.
• In 1933, Fritz Zwicky was the first to use the virial theorem to infer the existence of unseen matter, which he referred to as dunkle Materie 'dark matter'.
• More robust evidence from galaxy rotation curves was discovered by Horace W. Babcock in 1939, but was not attributed to dark matter.
• The first hypothesis to postulate "dark matter" based upon robust evidence was formulated by Vera Rubin and Kent Ford in the 1960s–1970s
The concept of a spherical Earth dates back to ancient Greek philosophy from around the 6th century BC, but remained a matter of philosophical speculation until the 3rd century BC when Hellenistic astronomy established the spherical
shape of the earth as a physical given. The Hellenistic paradigm was gradually adopted throughout the Old World during Late Antiquity and the middle Ages. A practical demonstration of Earth's sphericity was achieved by Ferdinand
Magellan and Juan Sebasti?n Elcano's expedition's circumnavigation (1519?1522).
The concept of a spherical Earth displaced earlier beliefs in a Flat Earth: In early Mesopotamian mythology, the world was portrayed as a Flat disk floating in the ocean and surrounded by a spherical sky, and this forms the premise for
early world maps like those of Anaximander and Hecataeus of Miletus. Other speculations on the shape of Earth include a seven-layered ziggurat or cosmic mountain, alluded to in the Avesta and ancient Persian writings. Source: Wikipedia
The figure of the Earth is more accurately described as an ellipsoid dates to the 17th century, as described by Isaac Newton in Principia.
And after that HE spread the earth (Dahaha). Al-Quran 79:30 The Arabic word ‘Dahaha’ is also refers to 'Egg', specifically an Ostrich-egg. The shape of an ostrich-egg resembles
the geospherical shape of the earth Flat Earth concept of the Ancient world The shape of Earth approximates an oblate spheroid, a sphere flattened along the axis from pole to pole such that
there is a bulge around the equator. This bulge results from the rotation of Earth, and causes the diameter at the equator to be 43 kilometres larger than the pole-to-pole diameter.
Source: Wikipedia Earth
• In early Egyptian and Mesopotamian thought the world was portrayed as a flat disk floating in the ocean.
• The ancient Norse and Germanic peoples believed in a flat earth cosmography of the earth surrounded by an ocean
• Ming China: As late as 1595, an early Jesuit missionary to China, Matteo Ricci, recorded that the Chinese say: "The earth is flat and square, and the sky is a round canopy;
• Ancient India: Ancient Jain and Buddhist cosmology held that the Earth is a disc consisting of four continents grouped around a central mountain (Mount Meru) like the petals of a flower. An outer ocean surrounds these continents.
Day and night cycles are caused by Earth's spin on its axis. Earth turns or rotates one time every 24 hours. The part
of Earth that is facing the Sun experiences day, and the part facing away from the Sun experiences night. As Earth spins counterclockwise (viewed from above the North Pole) the region of daylight moves across the globe from east to west
For centuries it was believed that Earth is fixed and the sun, moon and planets revolve around it. However 1400 years ago Almighty Allah said in the Quran that not only the sun and the moon but even Earth moves in a designated path
German; Nicolaus Copernicus: (19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the centre of the universe. The publication of this model in his book On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres just before his death in 1543.
Geocentric Model: For many thousands of years humanity with a few notable exceptions did not recognize the existence of the Solar System. People believed Earth to be Stationary at the center of the universe and categorically different from the divine or ethereal objects that moved through the sky. Although the Greek philosopher Aristarchus of Samos had speculated on a heliocentric reordering of the cosmos, Nicolaus Copernicus was the first to develop a mathematically predictive heliocentric system. In the 17th-century, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton, developed an understanding of physics that led to the gradual acceptance of the idea that Earth moves around the Sun and that the planets are governed by the same physical laws that governed Earth. The invention of the telescope led to the discovery of further planets and moons. Source: Wikipedia
Heliocentric Model: is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around a stationary Sun at the centre of the Solar System. Historically, heliocentrism was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth at the centre. The notion that the Earth revolves around the Sun had been proposed as early as the 3rd century BC by Aristarchus of Samos, but Aristarchus's heliocentrism attracted little attention until Copernicus revived and elaborated it. Lucio Russo, however, argues that this is a misleading impression resulting from the loss of scientific works of the Hellenistic Era. Using indirect evidence he argues that a heliocentric view was expounded in Hipparchus's work on gravity. It was not until the 16th century that a fully predictive mathematical model of a heliocentric system was presented, by the Renaissance mathematician, astronomer, and Catholic cleric Nicolaus Copernicus of Poland, leading to the Copernican Revolution. In the following century, Johannes Kepler elaborated upon and expanded this model to include elliptical orbits, and supporting observations made using a telescope were presented by Galileo Galilei. Source: Wikipedia
Claudius Ptolemy: (c. AD 100 – c.?170) was a Greco-Egyptian writer, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, & poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, and held Roman citizenship. Where he died around AD 168
Rotation of the Sun: The first and most widely used tracers are sunspots. Though sunspots had been observed since
ancient times, it was only when the telescope came into use that they were observed to turn with the Sun, and thus the
period of the solar rotation could be defined. The English scholar Thomas Harriot was probably the first to observe
sunspots telescopically as evidenced by a drawing in his notebook dated December 8, 1610, and the first published
observations (June 1611) entitled Narration on Spots Observed on the Sun and their Apparent Rotation with the Sun were
by Johannes Fabricius who had been systematically observing the spots for a few months and had noted also their
movement across the solar disc. This can be considered the first observational evidence of the solar rotation.
Christopher Scheiner (“Rosa Ursine sive solis”, book 4, part 2, 1630) was the first to measure the equatorial rotation
rate of the Sun and noticed that the rotation at higher latitudes is slower, so he can be considered the discoverer of
solar differential rotation.
St. John (1918) was perhaps the first to summarize the published solar rotation rates, and concluded that the differences in series measured in different years can hardly be attributed to personal observation or to local disturbances on the Sun, and are probably due to time variations in the rate of rotation, and Hubrecht (1915) was the first one to find that the two solar hemispheres rotate differently. Source: Wikipedia
The English scholar Thomas Harriot was probably the first to observe sunspots telescopically as evidenced by a drawing in his notebook dated: December 8, 1610
Moonlight is the light that reaches Earth from the Moon, consisting mostly of sunlight, with some Starlight and
earthlight reflected from those portions of its surface which the Sun's light strikes. Previously it was believed by
ancient civilizations that the moon produces its own light following are some references:
The ancients thought that the Moon produced its own light: www.howitworksdaily.com
The moon and the sun were commonly referred to by the ancient Egyptians as "the two lights", and the weaker light of the Moon is compared to the evening Sun. Most frequently, the ancient Egyptians interpreted these two lights as the eyes of ‘Re’ http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/moon.htm
Plutarch, in his Morals (3.10.2) says: The moon gently warming makes the body moist; but the sun by his violent beams dries rather, and draws all moisture from them … Now the moon’s rays are weaker; for, as Ion says, “They do not ripen well the clustered grapes.” [Plutarch, vol. 3, Plutarch’s Morals, ed. Goodwin (Medford, MA: Little, Brown, and Company, 1874], 285.)
Martin Luther says: When the sun rises, it eclipses and pales the moon. Moon and stars lose their brightness, yes, they are no longer seen while it is day, so brilliant is the light of the sun beside theirs. I suppose that moon and stars would be glad to shine, but the light of the sun is too bright and strong. The same thing is true of Christ. The prophets are the stars and the moon, but Christ is the sun. Wherever Christ appears, speaks, and shines, His words have a validity that invalidates and stifles all others and renders them of no account, even though the moon and the stars also glitter and glisten beautifully. (Martin Luther, vol. 23, Luther’s Works, Vol. 23: Sermons on the Gospel of St. John: Chapters 6-8, ed. Jaroslav Pelikan, et. al. [Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1999], Jn 7:44.)
In 499 AD, the Indian astronomer Aryabhata mentioned in his Aryabhatiya that reflected sunlight is the cause of the shining of the Moon. But please remember that Aryabhata also described a geocentric model of the solar system, in which the Sun and Moon are each carried by epicycles. They in turn revolve around the Earth.
Anaxagoras (c. 510 BC – c. 428 BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, His observations of the celestial bodies and the fall of meteorites led him to form new theories of the universal order, and to a putative prediction of the impact of a meteorite in 467 BC. He was the first to explain that the moon shines due to reflected light from the sun. Source: Wikipedia
Anaxagoras did have errors in his argument as he claimed that the sun is a rock! While in modern astronomy we all know that stars are just forms of huge gaseous balls. Anaxagoras also said that the moon had mountains and believed that it was inhabited. He explained that, though both sun and the stars were fiery stones, we do not feel the heat of the stars because of their enormous distance from earth. He thought that the earth is flat and floats supported by 'strong' air under it and disturbances in this air sometimes causes earthquakes.
It is important to remember that Prophet Mohammed (p.b.u.h) was an illiterate shepherd, who lived amongst people whose passion lied mainly in poetry and literature, not science. If Prophet Muhammed (p.b.u.h) copied Quran from others why did he choose to reveal the correct scientific facts and avoid the errors?
In the above verse of the holy Quran Almighty Allah clearly mentioned the splitting of the moon. The miracle of the
splitting of the moon occurred before the migration to Medina upon the demands of the polytheists of Makkah with the
permission of Allah the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) shown them a miracle as narrated by many eye witnesses and companions
like Anas bin Malik, Abdullah bin Mas’ud etc. (May Allah be pleased with them). Following are some narrations of
Narrated Abdullah bin Masood: "During the lifetime of the Prophet the moon was split into two parts and on that the Prophet said, 'Bear witness (to thus).' (Sahih Bukhari, Virtues and Merits of the Prophet (pbuh) and his Companions, Volume 4, Book 56, Number 830)"
Narrated Anas bin Malik: "The people of Mecca asked Allah's Apostle to show them a miracle. So he showed them the moon split in two halves between which they saw the Hiram' mountain. (Sahih Bukhari, Merits of the Helpers in Madinah (Ansaar), Volume 5, Book 58, Number 208)"
Narrated Anas: "That the Meccan people requested Allah's Apostle to show them a miracle, And so he showed them the splitting of the moon. (Sahih Bukhari, Virtues and Merits of the Prophet (pbuh) and his Companions, Volume 4, Book 56, Number 831)"
Eye witness among Quraysh polytheists: Walid bin Mughira, Abu Jahl. As bin Wail, As bin Hisham, Aswad bin Abdi Yaghus, Aswad bin Muttalib, Zama bin Aswad, Nadr bin Harith and others.
Though I did not found any scientific evidence where scientist accepts that in the past moon was splitted in to half but scientist do accepts that at present the moon has clefts on it, scientist explains the clefts or rilles as. Rille or Clefts is typically used to describe any of the long, narrow depressions in the lunar surface that resemble channels. Typically a rille can be up to several kilometers wide and hundreds of kilometers in length. Precise formation mechanisms of rilles have yet to be determined. Source: Wikipedia
Rima Ariadaeus is a linear rille on the Moon. It is named after the crater Ariadaeus, which marks its eastern end. Over 300 kilometres long. It is thought to have been formed when a section of the Moon's crust sank down between two parallel fault lines.
There is also a very famous story of Indian King who witnessed the splitting of moon in a dream. Cheraman Perumal, the reigning King of Kerala, with Kodungallur as its capital, once experienced an unusual dream of the new moon being split into two halves at the horizon. His Court astrologers could not give him a satisfactory explanation. Later when a group of Arab traders on their way to Ceylon met the Perumal, he mentioned about his dream. They explained that this could probably be the miracle Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) performed at Arabia. This explanation convinced him and he decided to embrace Islam. http://www.cheramanmosque.com/history.php
Cheraman Juma Masjid: The Cheraman Juma Masjid is a mosque in Methala, Kodungallur Taluk, Thrissur district in the Indian state of Kerala. Built in 629 AD, it is believed to be one of the oldest mosques in the world and the first mosque in India. The then president of India Abdul Kalam is among the notable visitors to this mosque. According to legends, Cherman Perumal travelled to Madinah to meet the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and embraced Islam and changed his name to Tajuddin. From there he had sent letters with Malik Ibn Dinar to his relatives in Kerala, asking them to be courteous to the latter. But he died on his way back and is now buried in Salalah, Oman. According to Burnell he was a contemporary of Islamic Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).Source: Wikipedia
Tomb of King Cheraman Perumal (Salalah, Oman) Presently, both nationals and Indian expatriates visit the tomb in Salalah with reverence. Many tourists visit the tomb from the region and from India. In 2011, a high-level team from India visited the tomb of Cheraman Perumal in Salalah as part of the Muziris Heritage Project of the Kerala state's Ministry of Tourism. Former Indian Ambassador to Oman Anil Wadwa had also visited the tomb of King Cheraman Perumal Salalah in 2011.
There is also a story of an Indian King who witnessed the split of the moon: The incident relating to King Chakrawati Farmas is documented in an old manuscript in the India Office Library, London, which has reference number: Arabic, 2807, 152-173. It was quoted in the book "Muhammad Rasulullah," by Muhammed Hamidullah.