Prophet Muhammad ﷺ

The last and final prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets (peace be upon them all). Prophet Muhammad ﷺ united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief. Born approximately 570 CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Makkah, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was orphaned at the age of six. He was raised under the care of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, and upon his death, by his uncle Abu Talib. In later years he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer. When he was 40, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ reported being visited by Jibrail عليه السلام (Gabriel) in the cave, and receiving his first revelation from God. Three years later, in 610, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" (islām) to God is the right way of life (deen), and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam. The followers of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ were initially few in number, and experienced hostility from Makkan polytheists. He sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 to shield them from prosecution, before he and his followers migrated from Makkah to Madinah (then known as Yathrib) in 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Madinah, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ united the tribes under the Constitution of Madinah. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Makkan tribes, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ gathered an army of 10,000 Muslims and marched on the city of Makkah. The conquest went largely uncontested and Prophet Muhammad ﷺ seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam. The revelations (each known as Ayah, lit. "Sign [of God]"), which Prophet Muhammad ﷺ reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ's teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia). The name Muhammad means "praiseworthy" and appears four times in the Quran. The Quran addresses Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in the second person by various appellations; prophet, messenger, servant of God ('abd), announcer (bashir), ہم نے آپ کو حق کے ساتھ خوشخبری دینے واﻻ اور ڈرانے واﻻ بنا کر بھیجا ہے اور جہنمیوں کے بارے میں آپ سے پرسش نہیں ہوگی
Indeed, We have sent you, [O Muhammad], with the truth as a bringer of good tidings and a warner, and you will not be asked about the companions of Hellfire. Al Quran 02:119 bearer of good tidings (mubashshir) witness (shahid), warner (nathir)
اے نبی! یقیناً ہم نے ہی آپ کو (رسول بنا کر) گواہیاں دینے واﻻ، خوشخبریاں سنانے واﻻ، آگاه کرنے واﻻ بھیجا ہے
O Prophet, indeed We have sent you as a witness and a bringer of good tidings and a warner. Al Quran 33:45 یہ کہ اللہ کے سوا کسی کی عبادت مت کرو میں تم کو اللہ کی طرف سے ڈرانے واﻻ اور بشارت دینے واﻻ ہوں
[Through a messenger, saying], "Do not worship except Allah . Indeed, I am to you from Him a warner and a bringer of good tidings," Al Quran 11:02 [Quran 88:21] reminder (mudhakkir) one who calls [unto God] (dā'ī),
پس آپ نصیحت کر دیا کریں (کیونکہ) آپ صرف نصیحت کرنے والے ہیں
So remind, [O Muhammad]; you are only a reminder. Al Quran 88:21 [Quran 05:15] and the light-giving lamp (siraj munir) and[Quran 12:108] light personified (noor).
اے اہل کتاب! یقیناً تمہارے پاس ہمارا رسول (صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم) آچکا جو تمہارے سامنے کتاب اللہ کی بکثرت ایسی باتیں ﻇاہر کر رہا ہے جنہیں تم چھپا رہے تھے اور بہت سی باتوں سے درگزر کرتا ہے، تمہارے پاس اللہ تعالیٰ کی طرف سے نور اور واضح کتاب آچکی ہے
O People of the Scripture, there has come to you Our Messenger making clear to you much of what you used to conceal of the Scripture and overlooking much. There has come to you from Allah a light and a clear Book. Al Quran 5:15 [Quran 33:46] Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address:
اور اللہ کے حکم سے اس کی طرف بلانے واﻻ اور روشن چراغ
And one who invites to Allah, by His permission, and an illuminating lamp. Al Quran 33:46
thus he is referred to as the enwrapped (Al-Muzzammil)
اے کپڑے میں لپٹنے والے
O you who wraps himself [in clothing] Al Quran 73:01.

and the shrouded (al-muddaththir) in Al Quran 74:1. اے کپڑا اوڑھنے والے
O you who covers himself [with a garment]

In Sura Al-Ahzab 33:40 God singles out Prophet Muhammad ﷺ as the "Seal of the prophets", or the last of the prophets. The Quran also refers to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ as Ahmad "more praiseworthy" (Sura As-Saff 61:6).
اور جب مریم کے بیٹے عیسیٰ نے کہا اے (میری قوم)، بنی اسرائیل! میں تم سب کی طرف اللہ کا رسول ہوں مجھ سے پہلے کی کتاب تورات کی میں تصدیق کرنے واﻻ ہوں اور اپنے بعد آنے والے ایک رسول کی میں تمہیں خوشخبری سنانے واﻻ ہوں جنکا نام احمد ہے۔ پھر جب وه ان کے پاس کھلی دلیلیں ﻻئے تو یہ کہنے لگے، یہ تو کھلا جادو ہے
And [mention] when Jesus, the son of Mary, said, "O children of Israel, indeed I am the messenger of Allah to you confirming what came before me of the Torah and bringing good tidings of a messenger to come after me, whose name is Ahmad." But when he came to them with clear evidences, they said, "This is obvious magic." Al Quran 61:06

The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, begins with the kunya Abū, which corresponds to the English, father of.

Early biographies

The earliest surviving written sira (biographies of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and quotes attributed to him) is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written c. 767 CE (150 AH). Although the work was lost, this sira was used at great length by Ibn Hisham and to a lesser extent by Al-Tabari. However, Ibn Hisham admits in the preface to his biography of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ that he omitted matters from Ibn Ishaq's biography that "would distress certain people". Another early history source is the history of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ's campaigns by al-Waqidi (death 207 of Muslim era), and the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi (death 230 of Muslim era).

Hadith

Other important sources include the hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical teachings and traditions of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik ibn Anas, al-Daraqutni.

Childhood and early life

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was born about the year 570 and his birthday is believed to be in the month of Rabi' al-awwal. He belonged to the Banu Hashim clan, part of the Quraysh tribe, and was one of Makkah's prominent families, although it appears less prosperous during Prophet Muhammad ﷺ's early lifetime. Tradition places the year of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ's birth as corresponding with the Year of the Elephant, which is named after the failed destruction of Makkah that year by the Abraha, Yemen's king, who supplemented his army with elephants. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ's father, Abdullah, died almost six months before he was born. According to Islamic tradition, soon after birth he was sent to live with a Bedouin family in the desert, as desert life was considered healthier for infants. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ stayed with his foster-mother, Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb, and her husband until he was two years old. At the age of six, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ lost his biological mother Amina to illness and became an orphan. For the next two years, until he was eight years old, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was under the guardianship of his paternal grandfather Abdul-Muttalib, of the Banu Hashim clan until his death. He then came under the care of his uncle Abu Talib, the new leader of the Banu Hashim. In his teens, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ accompanied his uncle on Syrian trading journeys to gain experience in commercial trade. Islamic tradition states that when Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was either nine or twelve while accompanying the Makkans' caravan to Syria, he met a Christian monk or hermit named Bahira who is said to have foreseen Prophet Muhammad ﷺ's career as a prophet of God. Little is known of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ during his later youth, available information is fragmented, making it difficult to separate history from legend. It is known that he became a merchant and "was involved in trade between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea." Due to his upright character he acquired the nickname "al-Amin", meaning "faithful, trustworthy" and "al-Sadiq" meaning "truthful" and was sought out as an impartial arbitrator. His reputation attracted a proposal in 595 from Khadijah رضي الله عنه, a 40-year-old widow. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ consented to the marriage, which by all accounts was a happy one. Several years later, according to a narration collected by historian Ibn Ishaq, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was involved with a well-known story about setting the Black Stone in place in the wall of the Kaaba in 605 CE. The Black Stone, a sacred object, was removed during renovations to the Kaaba. The Makkan leaders could not agree which clan should return the Black Stone to its place. They decided to ask the next man who comes through the gate to make that decision; that man was the 35-year-old Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. This event happened five years before the first revelation by Jibrail عليه السلام(Gabriel) to him. He asked for a cloth and laid the Black Stone in its center. The clan leaders held the corners of the cloth and together carried the Black Stone to the right spot, then Prophet Muhammad ﷺ laid the stone, satisfying the honour of all.

Beginnings of the Quran

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ began to pray alone in a cave named Hira on Mount Jabal al-Nour, near Makkah for several weeks every year. Islamic tradition holds that during one of his visits to that cave, in the year 610 the angel Jibrail عليه السلام (Gabriel) appeared to him and commanded Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to recite verses that would be included in the Quran. Consensus exists that the first Quranic words revealed were the beginning of Surah 96:1 Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was deeply distressed upon receiving his first revelations. After returning home, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was consoled and reassured by Khadijah رضي الله عنه and her Christian cousin, Waraka ibn Nawfal. He also feared that others would dismiss his claims as being possessed.Sahih Bukhari narrates Prophet Muhammad ﷺ describing his revelations as "sometimes it is (revealed) like the ringing of a bell". Aisha رضي الله عنه reported, "I saw the Prophet being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration was over)". According to the Quran, one of the main roles of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is to warn the unbelievers of their eschatological punishment (Quran 6:19). Occasionally the Quran did not explicitly refer to Judgment day but provided examples from the history of extinct communities and warns Prophet Muhammad ﷺ's contemporaries of similar calamities (Quran 41:13–16). Prophet Muhammad ﷺ did not only warn those who rejected God's revelation, but also dispensed good news for those who abandoned evil, listening to the divine words and serving God. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ's mission also involves preaching monotheism: The Quran commands Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to proclaim and praise the name of his Lord and instructs him not to worship idols or associate other deities with God.

Opposition

According to Muslim tradition, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ's wife Khadija رضي الله عنه was the first to believe he was a prophet. She was followed by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ's ten-year-old cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه, close friend Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه, and adopted son Zaid رضي الله عنه. Around 613, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ began to preach to the public. Most Makkans ignored and mocked him, though a few became his followers. There were three main groups of early converts to Islam: younger brothers and sons of great merchants; people who had fallen out of the first rank in their tribe or failed to attain it; and the weak, mostly unprotected foreigners. According to Ibn Saad, opposition in Makkah started when Prophet Muhammad ﷺ delivered verses that condemned idol worship and the polytheism practiced by the Makkan forefathers. However, the Quranic exegesis maintains that it began as Prophet Muhammad ﷺ started public preaching. As his followers increased, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ became a threat to the local tribes and rulers of the city, whose wealth rested upon the Kaabah, the focal point of Makkan religious life that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ threatened to overthrow. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ's denunciation of the Makkan traditional religion was especially offensive to his own tribe, the Quraysh, as they were the guardians of the Kaabah. Powerful merchants attempted to convince Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to abandon his preaching; he was offered admission to the inner circle of merchants, as well as an advantageous marriage. He refused both of these offers. Tradition records at great length the persecution and ill-treatment towards Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and his followers. Sumayyah bint Khayyat رضي الله عنه, a slave of a prominent Makkan leader Abu Jahl, is famous as the first martyr of Islam; killed with a spear by her master when she refused to give up her faith. Bilal رضي الله عنه, another Muslim slave, was tortured by Umayyah ibn Khalaf who placed a heavy rock on his chest to force his conversion. In 617, the leaders of Makhzum and Banu Abd-Shams, two important Quraysh clans, declared a public boycott against Banu Hashim, their commercial rival, to pressure it into withdrawing its protection of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. The boycott lasted three years but eventually collapsed as it failed in its objective. During this time, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was only able to preach during the holy pilgrimage months in which all hostilities between Arabs was suspended.

Hijra

The Hijra is the migration of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and his followers from Makkah to Madinah in 622 CE. In June 622, warned of a plot to assassinate him, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ secretly slipped out of Makkah and moved his followers to Madinah, 450 kilometres (280 miles) north of Makkah. Migration to Madinah
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ instructed his followers to emigrate to Madinah, until nearly all his followers left Makkah. Being alarmed at the departure, according to tradition, the Makkans plotted to assassinate Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. With the help of Ali رضي الله عنه, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ fooled the Makkans watching him, and secretly slipped away from the town with Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه. By 622, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ immigrated to Madinah, a large agricultural oasis. Those who migrated from Makkah along with Prophet Muhammad ﷺ became known as muhajirun (emigrants). Establishment of a new polity
Among the first things Prophet Muhammad ﷺ did to ease the longstanding grievances among the tribes of Madinah was to draft a document known as the Constitution of Madinah, "establishing a kind of alliance or federation" among the eight Madinan tribes and Muslim emigrants from Makkah; this specified rights and duties of all citizens, and the relationship of the different communities in Madinah (including the Muslim community to other communities, specifically the Jews and other "Peoples of the Book"). The community defined in the Constitution of Madinah, Ummah, had a religious outlook, also shaped by practical considerations and substantially preserved the legal forms of the old Arab tribes. Madinans who converted to Islam and helped the Muslim emigrants find shelter became known as the ansar (supporters). Then Prophet Muhammad ﷺ instituted brotherhood between the emigrants and the supporters and he chose Ali رضي الله عنه as his own brother.

Final years

The truce of Hudaybiyyah was enforced for two years. The tribe of Banu Khuza'a had good relations with Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, whereas their enemies, the Banu Bakr, had allied with the Makkans. A clan of the Bakr made a night raid against the Khuza'a, killing a few of them. The Makkans helped the Banu Bakr with weapons and, according to some sources, a few Makkans also took part in the fighting. After this event, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ sent a message to Makkah with three conditions, asking them to accept one of them. These were: either the Makkans would pay blood money for the slain among the Khuza'ah tribe, they disavow themselves of the Banu Bakr, or they should declare the truce of Hudaybiyyah null. The Makkans replied that they accepted the last condition. Soon they realized their mistake and sent Abu Sufyan to renew the Hudaybiyyah treaty, a request that was declined by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ began to prepare for a campaign. In 630, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ marched on Makkah with 10,000 Muslim converts. With minimal casualties, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ seized control of Makkah. He declared an amnesty for past offences, except for ten men and women who were "guilty of murder or other offences or had sparked off the war and disrupted the peace". Some of these were later pardoned. Most Makkans converted to Islam and Prophet Muhammad ﷺ proceeded to destroy all the statues of Arabian gods in and around the Kaaba. According to reports collected by Ibn Ishaq and al-Azraqi, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ personally spared paintings or frescos of Mary and Jesus, but other traditions suggest that all pictures were erased. The Quran discusses the conquest of Makkah.